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Male Infertility

In couples with infertility, 30~40% of infertility is due to male factor

  • It is important to know whether causes of infertility can be fundamentally resolved.
  • It is a state where the fundamental solution is impossible but, Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) can be carried out with the patient’s sperm.
  • It cannot be solved with ART and need to take a consideration of adoption or need to receive sperm donation.
  • It is crucial to evaluate whether there is a disease that may affect infertility.
  • It evaluates whether there is genetic and chromosome abnormalities that may affect in the next generation.

Classified according to the cause of male infertility

  • Spermatogenesis disorder: Abnormal sperm production from testis
  • Sperm emission disorder: Normal sperm production from testis but a abnormal sperm emission
  • Accessory sex gland disorder
  • Sexual dysfunction


  • Azoospermia is the medical condition of a male not having any sperm in his semen.

Classification of causes of Azoospermia

1) Obstructive : Normal spermatogenesis in testis but blockage in the efferent duct systems, preventing the passage of spermatozoa into the semen.

  • Previous inflammatory disease
  • Congenitally, no formation of bilateral vas deferens.

2) Non-obstructive : No blockage in the efferent duct systems but abnormal spermatogenesis in testis.

  • Hypospermatogenesis
  • Maturation arrests
  • Sertoli cell only syndrome
Hysteroscopic surqery

Male infertility-related procedures

  • Varicoceletomy

    Varicocele is an abnormal enlargement of the vein that is in the scrotum draining the testicles. Varicoceletomy is a surgical treatment of varicocele by excision .Varicocele is found about 15% of the total male population. This is a common disease where 35% of it occurs in the case of primary infertility and 75~81% in secondary infertility of infertile males. A varicocele could possibly affect sperm by increasing testicular temperature. Generally, 60~80% of patients improved with semen parameters along with 30~40% of natural pregnancy could be expected after varicoceletomy.

Vasovasostomy, Vasoepididymostomy

If the reproductive tract between the penis and testes is blocked, surgical repair can be attempted by performing a complicated microsurgery called a vasoepididymal anastomosis (VEA). Through this surgery the blocked passage is reconnected and made the pregnancy possible. This is technically difficult and intricate surgery because it needs to be done under high magnification. It has been reported that within 10 years from the surgery, the recovery rate was 80-90% and pregnancy rate was 40~70%.

  • Testicular sperm extraction (TESE)

    In the case of non-obstructive azoospermia patient where normal sperm cannot be collected from the ejaculation, then, mainly, this procedure is carried for ART by collecting sperm directly from the testis of the patient. However, other procedures such as testicular fine needle aspiration (TEFNA), percutaneous sperm aspiration (PESA) or multiple TESE can also be performed.

  • Transuretheral resection of ejaculatory duct (TURED)

    Sperm discharge disorder due to blockage of ejaculatory duct can be solved by this surgery